Fractura del extremo proximal del húmero

Alejandro Álvarez López, Yenima de la Caridad García Lorenzo

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Resumen

Fundamento: la fractura del extremo proximal del húmero es una enfermedad traumática frecuente, en especial en pacientes que presentan osteoporosis de esta zona anatómica. El tratamiento puede ser conservador o quirúrgico, basado en factores propios del enfermo y del tipo de fractura.
Objetivo:
profundizar los conocimientos sobre pacientes que sufren de fractura del extremo proximal del húmero debido a su alta incidencia en los servicios de urgencia.
Métodos:
la búsqueda de la información se realizó en un periodo de un mes (septiembre) y se emplearon las siguientes palabras: fractures of the proximal humerus y shoulder trauma, a partir de la información obtenida se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 2023 artículos publicados en las bases de datos Pubmed, Hinari, SciELO y Medline mediante el gestor de búsqueda y administrador de referencias EndNote, de ellos se utilizaron 50 citas seleccionadas para realizar la revisión, 47 de ellas de los últimos cinco años, donde se incluyeron siete libros.
Desarrollo:
se describe la acción de las fuerzas musculares deformantes, así como la clasificación más empleada en esta enfermedad, que los divides en partes. Se hace referencia a los estudios imaginológicos más empleados con especial énfasis en la radiografía convencional. Se describe el tratamiento de cada tipo de fractura basado en la clasificación y se exponen los factores pronósticos relacionados con la isquemia de la cabeza humeral.
Conclusiones: las fracturas del extremo proximal del húmero son lesiones frecuentes en especial en pacientes ancianos, debido a la osteoporosis de la zona afectada. El tratamiento conservador o quirúrgico depende de variables propias de cada enfermo y transita desde las modalidades conservadoras a las quirúrgicas.
DeCS: FRACTURAS DEL HÚMERO; HOMBRO/lesiones; PRONÓSTICO; OSTEOPOROSIS; LITERATURA DE REVISIÓN COMO ASUNTO.

Palabras clave

FEPH- Fractura del extremo proximal del humero TH- Trauma del hombro LFH- Luxofractura del hombro

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