Mosaicoplastia

Alejandro Alvarez López, Yenima de la Caridad García Lorenzo

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Resumen

Fundamento: las lesiones de los cartílagos son frecuentes en la actualidad, sus principales síntomas y signos son el dolor y la limitación del movimiento articular. El tratamiento de esta afección es variado, de estas modalidades la mosaicoplastia es muy empleada por sus diferentes ventajas.
Objetivo:
actualizar los conocimientos sobre el injerto osteocondral autólogo en la modalidad de mosaicoplastia.
Métodos:
la búsqueda de la información se realizó en el mes de octubre de 2016, a partir de la información obtenida se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 654 artículos publicados en las bases de datos PubMed, Hinari, SciELO y Medline mediante el gestor de búsqueda y administrador de referencias EndNote, de ellos se utilizaron 52 citas seleccionadas para realizar la revisión, 47 de ellas de los últimos cinco años, donde se incluyeron cuatro libros.
Desarrollo:
se describen los elementos necesarios para el diagnóstico clínico e imaginológico, en relación a estos últimos se hace énfasis en la imagen de resonancia magnética y la artroscopia. Se hace referencia a la clasificación de la sociedad internacional para la reparación de los cartílagos. Se describen las indicaciones quirúrgicas generales de las lesiones de cartílago y las específicas de la mosaicoplastia con sus principales ventajas y desventajas. Se plasman las principales complicaciones relacionadas con el procedimiento y los resultados de un grupo de investigaciones.
Conclusiones: la mosaicoplastia es una variedad de injerto autólogo osteocondral empleada con buenos resultados en la actualidad, tiene ventajas, desventajas e indicaciones específicas.
DeCS: OSTEOCONDRITIS DISECANTE; TRASPLANTE ÓSEO; ARTROSCOPIA; ENFERMEDADES DE LOS CARTÍLAGOS; LITERATURA DE REVISIÓN COMO ASUNTO.

Palabras clave

OD- Osteocondritis disecante. IRM- Imagen de resonancia magnética. ICRS- International cartilage repair society. IO- Injerto osteocondral.

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