La mujer, el ciclo menstrual y la actividad física

Andrea Selene Aguilar Macias, Maria de los Ángeles Miranda, Alfredo Quintana Díaz

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Resumen

Fundamento: en la actualidad existe dificultad con la planificación del entrenamiento femenino pues se planea con modelos adaptados del sexo masculino, sin adecuar el entrenamiento a las necesidades fisiológicas que el género femenino demanda.
Objetivo:
describir aspectos relacionados con la mujer, su ciclo menstrual y la práctica de actividad física.
Métodos:
se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los últimos 20 años que incluyó 53 artículos publicados en las bases de datos biomédicas (Scielo, Pubmed y Medline), así como repositorios de tesis.
Desarrollo:
el ciclo sexual femenino consiste en cambios morfo-funcionales que ocurren de manera periódica en el ovario y el útero. Los ciclos son regulados por interacciones complejas del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis, los ovarios y el aparato genital; su oscilación es de 28 días con variaciones de 20 a 38. Diferentes hormonas trabajan en sintonía durante el ciclo, sin embargo, las que se relacionan de forma directa con la actividad física son el estrógeno, la progesterona, la testosterona, la insulina, la somatotropina y la prolactina. Ocurren variaciones psicológicas y fisiológicas tanto positivas como negativas que afectan a las mujeres en la práctica de actividad física, se recomienda la inclusión del ciclo menstrual en los planes de entrenamiento con la división de cinco fases y una dosificación de entrenamiento adecuada para cada una de ellas.
Conclusiones: la relación entre ciclo menstrual y actividad física ha sido estudiada desde diferentes perspectivas, existen diferencias significativas en la adaptación de la carga física en diferentes fases del ciclo menstrual, es recomendable incluir las variaciones del ciclo menstrual en las planificaciones de la actividad física femenina.
DeCS: CICLO MENSTRUAL; ACTIVIDAD MOTORA; EDUCACIÓN Y ENTRENAMIENTO FÍSICO; FEMENINO; LITERATURA DE REVISIÓN COMO ASUNTO.

Palabras clave

Ciclo menstrual, actividad física y ejercicio físico

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